This is the sixth issue of our bi-monthly newsletter. We've received
many positive comments regarding it and hope that you find it useful and
informative. The O'Connor Center is engaged in a variety of activities in the
state and region and we want to keep you informed about this work. Hopefully,
the summer is going well for you.
From all of
us at the O'Connor Center for the Rocky Mountain West, The University of
look at the region's history
provided by William Farr
Sometimes it was
called the Hell Gate Treaty, sometimes the Council Grove Treaty, sometimes
Treaty with the Flatheads. The year was 1855, July 16, more than 151 years ago.
Governor and Superintendent Isaac Ingalls Stevens of Washington
Territory was then on a lengthy treaty tour throughout the whole of his
territory and wished to begin negotiations with the Flathead, Pend d’Oreille
and Kootenai Indians on what would eventually
Montana. He convened representatives of these tribes in what was then known as
Hellgate Route, at
the confluence of the Bitterroot and Clark Fork
Rivers. At that time
Washington Territory ran from
to the Continental Divide.
Aboriginal land title had not yet been extinguished
and Governor Stevens made that task his first order of business in the newly
created territory. Acting on behalf of the Office of Indian Affairs in
D.C., and initiating a new reservation policy, Stevens concentrated on land
cessions, placing Indian people on reservations, and paying for those lands
with annual payments of goods and services.
His treaty tour began on Puget Sound and progressed
up the Columbia River to Walla Walla in the early spring
of 1855. In July it was time for the Flatheads, Pend d’Oreilles, and one band
of Kootenai. Their chiefs or headmen were Victor, Alexander, and Michel
respectively. Meeting in the heat of July, in a tall grove of pines—Council
Grove—the Stevens party of 22 and the assembled Indians negotiated for eight
days before signing a formal treaty of 11 articles. These were difficult
negotiations; eventually the combined tribes would cede 25,000 acres, however,
and agree to Victor as head chief.
A major problem
was the inability of the combined tribes to agree on the location for the
consolidated reservation—should it be on the Pend d’Oreille territory in the
near St. Ignatius or in the
home of the Flatheads? Trying to break the impasse, Stevens
introduced the prospect of a “conditional Bitterroot” reservation. Victor too
employed a strategy in Article XI that argued for a survey and for the
president of the United States to decide. The
upshot was to postpone the decision to a later time. In the meanwhile,
Stevens wrote back to Olympia, the territorial capitol, “We are
proceeding grandly…Made a treaty yesterday with the Flatheads, Kootenais, and
upper Pend d’Oreilles numbering 1,400 souls.”
July 28th in Dubois, Wyo., Center Fellow Daniel Kemmis attended and
spoke at a meeting examining the potential for long-term stewardship contracts
to overcome some of the controversy attending Forest Service activities in the
24th and 25th in Missoula, Mont., Center Director Larry
Swanson and the Center hosted Professor Michael Osborne from the
and Dr. Patricia Inman, an educational consultant from Illinois and
co-editor of Vitae Scholasticae.
Osborne heads the Division of Academic Innovation and Continuing
and is co-director of its Centre for Lifelong Learning Research.
He also co-directs a fledging international consortium of partner
regions and institutions called
PASCAL’s current partner regions include
through the Scottish Executive; Kent County, England; and the State of
(Australia). Organizations in these regions are engaged in
innovative programs and practices dealing with learning regions, social
capital, and place management. PASCAL is
seeking to add new partners in North America, including
PASCAL has links with the EU and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development) and its current board chair is Dr. Jarl Bengtsson, former head
of OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
particular interest in
is work by the O’Connor Center in bringing economic analysis and knowledge to
city regions in
in a wide array of leadership learning venues and forums, including those under
on the Move.
While in Missoula, Osborne and Inman met with UM officials and area
leaders in workforce development, community development, and adult education.
PASCAL's annual conference in 2007 is entitled “Lifelong Learning in the
Borderless City-Region” and will be in
July 20th in Missoula, Kemmis
participated in a panel discussion sponsored by UM’s
Practical Ethics Center in a summer series entitled “Exploring the
Landscapes of Environmental Thought.” The panel examined a controversial essay
“The Death of
Environmentalism” and its
relevance to western issues.
July 14th in Helena, Mont., Swanson participated in a
technical committee meeting at the Montana Community Foundation.
MCF is doing a “Transfer of Wealth” study examining possible future
scenarios for wealth transfer in sub-regions of Montana.
July 13th in Bozeman, Mont., Swanson spoke at a board
meeting of the Helena Branch of the Federal Reserve System.
The Helena Fed Branch hosted representatives of the Minneapolis Federal
Reserve Bank, including President and CEO Gary Stern and staff with the Fed
Gazette publication. Swanson
discussed growth and change in the
region and how this growth is translating into the
July 9th in Lolo,
Mont., Senior Fellow Pat Williams, as a member of the Executive Board of
Travelers Rest State Park, participated in the closing ceremony of the
celebration of the 1805-06 expedition of Lewis and Clark.
8th in Helena, Mont., Senior Fellow Bob Brown conducted a recorded
interview with Thomas L. Judge, Montana governor 1973-81.
Governor Judge is one of nearly 30 prominent individuals in
Montana history that Brown has interviewed over the
past year for the Mansfield Library historical archives.
June 28-30th in Cambridge, Mass., Kemmis attended and spoke at a
conference sponsored by the Environmental
Public Policy Section of the Association of Conflict Resolution, The
conference focused on "Deliberative
Democracy: New Directions in Public Policy Dispute Resolution."
June 27th in Boston, Mass., Kemmis
"What Universities Can Bringto
at a meeting
of university-based consensus-building institutes.
The meeting was sponsored by the Portland, Oregon-based
Policy Consensus Institute.
June 18th in
Idaho, Swanson spoke at the
2006 Quad-State Bankers Convention to a gathering of several
hundred banking executives from
Colorado, Idaho, Montana,
and Nevada. Swanson and
Wells Fargo Senior Economist Gary Schlossberg shared in a discussion of key
growth trends in the region.
June 15th in Missoula, Mont., Kemmis spoke at a public meeting
exploring the prospect of establishing commuter-rail service in Missoula.
Kemmis spoke as a member of the board of
the Missoula Redevelopment agency, highlighting the importance of good public
transportation to livable cities, and drawing attention to new light rail
systems in several western cities.
June 14th in Somers,
Mont., Swanson spoke at a meeting of the
Flathead Basin Commission, discussing socioeconomic growth
and change in the
area. The 23-member Commission was
established by the Montana Legislature to encourage economic development while
protecting the “present high quality of the Flathead’s aquatic environment.” The
June 14th meeting was part of the Commission’s strategic planning
June 10th in Missoula, Mont., Kemmis spoke to a meeting of the directors of
western states humanities councils. He
gave the directors a walking tour of
’s downtown riverfront, pointing out the ways Missoula
citizens have been involved in improving the community, and drawing
parallels to similar stories in other western communities.
9th and July 14th Brown moderated the final two seminars
in a five-part series presented by the Center entitled “Montana Constitution:
Progressive Spirit of the Rocky Mountain West.”
The June 9th seminar, held at the Flathead Lake
Biological Station at Yellow Bay,
focused on the implementation of the clear and healthful environment
provision of the 1972 Montana State Constitution. Seminar keynoter
was district judge and former Constitutional Convention delegate C. B. McNeil.
Panelists included lawyers, legislators and spokespersons for resource groups
The July 14th concluding seminar was
held at the UM Lubrecht
Corbin Newman, USFS Director of Forest Management, keynoted on the seminar
theme of sustainable forests and communities following welcoming remarks by Bob
Campbell, the delegate to the 1972 Constitutional Convention who successfully
argued for the adoption of the clean and healthful environment language in the
constitution. Panelists and presenters included spokespersons for environmental
advocacy groups, resources-related businesses, and state and federal agencies.
All five seminars in the series were videotaped for the Mansfield
Library historical archives.
Brian Kahn moderates a panel on Sustainable Forests and
Communities during Seminar V of the Montana Constitution Series
at Lubrecht Forest Conference Center July 14, 2006.
June 8-9th in Billings,
Mont., Williams participated in the inauguration of the Governor’s Restoration
Forum. As members of
the planning committee, Williams and Jim Burchfield of UM’s
Forestry and Conservation were instrumental in launching
the forum. Williams moderated its final panel of federal participants and spoke
at the forum’s closing.
Missoula, Mont., Swanson
taped an interview that was broadcast on radio stations in the
Missoula area on June 12th.
The interview was part of the
Live Missoula program of the Missoula Organization
of Realtors - a community awareness program designed to help
’s real estate sector participate in important issues facing
7th in Missoula, Mont., Brown presented observations from his recent
experience during a teaching exchange at Nankai University in Tianjin, China to
the Missoula Sunrisers Rotary Club. He
also shared those observations with the Missoula Centennial Club Rotary Club on
July 11th and the Missoula Pachyderm Club on July 23rd.
Billings, Mont., Williams addressed a Billings
community breakfast audience on the subject of "Land and
Water Restoration as an Economic Engine."
June 5th in Phillipsburg, Mont.,
Swanson discussed key growth trends affecting
Granite County and its larger region at
an organizational meeting for a Flint Creek Watershed
Center for the Rocky Mountain West is a program of The University of Montana in
The Composition of Income is
as the Population Ages
It is becoming increasingly understood by most people that the U.S. population
is aging and that this has very real implications – health care needs are
rising, housing needs are changing, school age populations are shrinking, etc.
This aging process is also directly impacting the composition and make-up of
personal income. For most of this nation’s history, much of the income most
people and families receive to use for everything they buy came from their
employment. However, increasingly more and more areas today are receiving as
much income from non-employment sources, such as from investments, Social
Security and Medicare and Medicaid benefits, as they receive from employment
sources, i.e., wage and salary earnings. Areas in dark black in the map receive
as much or more of their personal income from non-employment sources as from
workplace earnings. And there is a heavy concentration of these places in the
in the news
gracefully--Quality of life will drive the new economy of western Montana
- Missoulian, July 31, 2006
businesses ask county to protect the water - Missoulian, July
transit for area could be long haul - Missoulian, July 26, 2006
Ravalli County open space bond placed on ballot - Missoulian,
July 26, 2006
to address sustainable forests, communities - Missoulian, July
Restoration is a New Economic Narrative for the West's Wild and Urban
Landscapes - NewWest, July 6, 2006
center gives western Montana high marks for ‘amenities' - Missoulian,
July 5, 2006
Summus Works, Inc.: BCTV Releases ``Balancing the Bitterroots'' - Denver
dBusiness News, June 19, 2006
a Commuter Rail System Solve Missoula's Transportation Problems? - NewWest,
June 15, 2006
process for short rail - Missoulian,
June 15, 2006
legislator tells life story of state constitution's 1972 birth - Missoulian,
June 5, 2006
Boise, Idaho, Center Director Larry Swanson will
give the keynote presentation at the annual Western Planners Conference. The conference and presentation are entitled “Shaping
Change in the New West. ”The conference is attended by hundreds
of planners from throughout the West.
in Whitefish, Mont., Swanson will speak at the
Montana Land Title Association Annual Convention at Grouse Mountain
Lodge. He will discuss key economic and
demographic trends in the state and region.
The convention is attended by title company and real estate representatives
throughout the region.
Aug. 18th in Browning, Mont., the Piegan Institute is holding a
history conference entitled Innaihtsiiyi, examining Blackfeet concepts of peace
and peace agreements. The conference is co-sponsored by the O'Connor Center and
UM's Native American Studies Dept. The conference will be held at the
Nizipuhwahsin School in Browning from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and is free and open to
Aug. 23rd in Helena, Mont., Bob Brown will speak about his
experiences on a teaching exchange at Nankai University in Tianjin, China, to
the Helena Last Chance Rotary Club.
Aug. 25-27th near Yellowstone Park, Williams will host the second meeting of this
year’s Emerging Leaders Conference. It will be at the B-Bar Ranch
north of the park.
Sept.15th at Big Sky, Mont., Daniel Kemmis will speak at the
Philanthropy Northwest 2006 Annual Conference and Membership Meeting.
Philanthropy Northwest is a network of approximately 190 foundations and
philanthropists in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington with a mission
to promote effective philanthropy.
Sept. 16th in Olympia, Wash., Kemmis will address the new MPA
students at the Evergreen State College's orientation. He will also speak to
the faculty of the Tribal MPA the following morning.
Sept. 26th in
Helena, Mont., Swanson will
speak at the annual Human Resources Conference sponsored by the
personnel division of Montana’s State Department of
His talk is entitled “Current Trends and Patterns of
Change – Montana’s Economic Outlook.”
Sept. 28-30th in Missoula, Mont.,
Williams will participate in the Montana Festival of the Book by presenting
readings from the book Mother Lode.
He and his wife Carol were contributors to the book which was jointly edited by
Prof. Janet Finn of The University of Montana and Ellen Crain, Director of the
Sept. 29th in Salt Lake City, Utah, Kemmis will participate on a
panel entitled "Has the West been Overlooked by Presidential Candidates?"
The panel is part of a
symposium, "A Western States Presidential Primary Election," sponsored
by the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Utah.
Milwaukee Station, home of the
O'Connor Center for the Rocky Mountain West
quotes from the region
as provided by Headwaters
need two hats. I was on horseback this
morning. This afternoon I ran the earth mover."
Wyoming rancher who also runs a business
of ground to allow the use of a moveable energy
- New York Times
is certainly possible that there are wolves in Colorado."
Hampton, a Colorado Division of
Wildlife spokesman, about hikers' report of seeing two wolves near Capitol Lake.
- Aspen Times
see long, bad battles
ahead with plenty of bloody expensive legal fights over who owns the water."
Harris, director of the nonprofit Rio Grande Restoration in Pilar and a
rafting guide, on the increasing demands on the very limited supply of water in the
Rio Grande running through New Mexico.
think this is the equivalent for the West of what hurricanes are for the
of Montana ecology professor, about how global warming has
increased and intensified wildfire seasons across the West.
authored by Bob Brown entitled “Direct Democracy” was published in the
Montana Policy Review, Spring 2006 issue.
The Review is published by the Local Government Center of MSU’s Department of
July, Pat Williams advised Bonnie Brooks of Chicago in her writing of a book on
the history of the National Endowment for the Arts during the Endowment’s
turbulent political years in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
During those years, Williams chaired the congressional committee that
oversaw the NEA and its reauthorization.
Williams has opened his Mansfield Library archives to Ms. Brooks, who said she
found them invaluable in her efforts to complete her book.
and Center research associate Doug Lawrence recently completed a study for the
Greater Yellowstone Coalition,
Bozeman, entitled: “The Cody,
Wyoming, Area Economy – Restructuring and Change in a Growing
Region” (July, 2006). GYC is using
the study as part of a larger report on the area's economy.
also completed an issue paper for Northern Great Plains, Inc. entitled “New
Directions for Rural Communities of the Northern Plains – Can the Path be
Altered?” (July, 2006).
continues to host meetings as follow-ups to the
Governor’s Restoration Forum that was held June 8th and
Billings.The current meetings will explore
“second steps” toward establishing a restoration economy in
and the Center are working on a study of
’s business and trade relationship with
funded by the
Canadian Consulate Office in
The report on cross-border trade and business activity in the
region will be completed in late September.
also is co-authoring a chapter for a forthcoming book entitled Researching
Social Capital, Lifelong Learning, and the Management of Place: An
International Perspective (Routledge, edited by Osborne, Sankey, and
Center Web Site
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The University of Montana
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